Lightly prune bush roses to prevent wind-rock, as they are usually shallow rooted. Climbing roses should be pruned now at the very latest.
2Plant tulip bulbs
Tulip bulbs can now go in. Species tulips naturalise, but showier varieties are best treated as bedding and replaced every year.
Pelargoniums (geraniums) can be cut back, de-leaved, watered less, not fed, and kept relatively dormant and just moist, over the winter. Re-potting, watering, and feeding in the spring will bring them back into active growth. They should be kept at around 10°C (50°F) while dormant, although mine have endured much lower temperatures than that.
4Mulch borderline hardy plants
Apply an autumn mulch to protect plants that are borderline hardy such as Agapanthus, Kniphofia (red hot pokers) and Phygelius. The plants’ own leaves, e.g. Kniphofia, can be tied up and used as protection for the crowns underneath.
5Plant lilies in pots
Plant lily bulbs in pots to be brought inside next spring to force them into an early display or left outside to flower naturally in summer.